NJ Ask Coach 5, Gold Edition.  Infer word meanings from learned roots, prefixes, and suffixes.  Infer specific word meanings in the context of reading. - ppt download (2023)

Presentation on theme: "NJ Ask Coach 5, Gold Edition.  Infer word meanings from learned roots, prefixes, and suffixes.  Infer specific word meanings in the context of reading."— Presentation transcript:

1 NJ Ask Coach 5, Gold Edition

2  Infer word meanings from learned roots, prefixes, and suffixes.  Infer specific word meanings in the context of reading passages.

3  Words are the building blocks of everything we read and write. So far, we’ve looked at words and their meanings. Now, let’s turn to the words themselves – and to the parts from which they are made.  Words do have parts. It’s easy to forget this when you think about words only with one part:  Firm: solid, not yielding to pressure; secure; determined; steady  Misfortune: something that happens because of bad luck

4  Words like firm and fortune aren’t necessarily simple. However, they are made up of only one part – and so they are simpler than words with two parts:  Infirm: (in and firm)  Misfortune: (mis and fortune) In these two-part words, the original words – firm and fortune – are called roots. They are the bases of the two-part words. The parts that have been added are called prefixes. A prefix makes a new word when added to the beginning of a root.

5  Which of the following words is a two-part word made of a prefix and a root?  A. axis  B. drumbeat  C. lifelike  D. supermarket  Drumbeat and lifelike both appear to be two- part words. These words are made by joining two words together – not by adding a prefix to a root.  The correct answer is Choice D. The word supermarket is made by joining the prefix super- to the root market.

6  Which of the following words is a one-part word without a prefix?  A. courage  B. midsection  C. subtitle  D. unicycle  Can you spot the two-part words among these choices? Mid-, sub-, and uni- are all prefixes.  The correct answer is Choice A, courage.

7  You’ve probably learned about prefixes before. They are word parts that have meaning but are not words themselves.  For example, the prefix un- can mean “not”, “the opposite of”, “reverse or undo”, “remove”, or “release.” There is a word in, of course, but the prefix in- is not a word. It can mean “not” or “into.”  A prefix isn’t a word by itself, but when it is added to a root, its meaning combines with the root word’s meaning to make a new word. If you already know the root and the prefix, you can figure out what the new word means.

8  Let’s take another look at our last examples. Here are the root words:  firm: solid, not yielding to pressure; secure; determined; steady  fortune: something that happens  You could use these one-part words in a sentence like this:  I had bad fortune when the rope broke, because I had thought it was firm.  You know what these root words mean, and you’ve seen what the prefixes in- and mis- can mean. When you put these word parts together, what meaning do you get?  Not only did Jenny get a failing grade on the big test, she came down with the flu, too. What a misfortune.

9  What does the word misfortune mean?  A. an unlucky event  B. something that is neither lucky nor unlucky  C. full of good luck  D. a good luck charm  Each of these choices combines meanings of mis- and fortune. However, only one makes sense, as a definition and in this context. Jenny failed a test and got sick. That’s not a lucky event!  Choice A is the right answer.

10  My grandfather was very strong as a young man. He’s almost ninety now, though, and he is sadly infirm.  What does the word infirm mean?  A. not solid; squishy  B. not strong; weak  C. not secure  D. yielding to pressure  Firm can mean solid, strong, secure, or not yielding to pressure. The prefix in- can mean not or into. Few of us would describe our grandfathers as squishy, insecure, or yielding to pressure! However, it is sad when someone once strong becomes weak with age.  The correct answer is B.

11  Prefixes are not the only word parts that can be added to roots. There are also suffixes. You’ve probably learned about suffixes before, too. Like prefixes, these word parts have meanings, but are not words by themselves. Like prefixes, they are added to roots to make new words. The big difference is that suffixes are added to the ends of roots.  faith: belief, trust; religion, set of beliefs; loyalty  faith + ful = faithful  machine: device with moving parts, often powered by electricity or an engine, used to perform a task.  machine + ery = machinery

12  Which of the following words is a two-part word made of a root and a suffix?  A. coverage  B. fiction  C. injure  D. pronounce  Only one of these words is made up of a root and a suffix.  Choice A is the correct answer. The suffix – age has been added to the root word cover.

13  Which of the following words is a one-part word without a suffix?  A. droplet  B. injection  C. retirement  D. triumph  Which words here have two parts? If you look closely at the choices, you’ll notice that –let, -tion, and –ment are all suffixes.  The correct answer is Choice D, triumph.

14  Suffixes cannot be words by themselves. However, they do have meaning. Like prefixes, they add their meanings to the meanings of roots to make new words. For example, the suffix –ful can mean “full of,” “characterized by,” or “able to.”  The suffix –ery can mean “place for,” “collection of,” or “state or condition.”  When you add these suffixes to words, what new meanings do you get?

15  By the middle of the game, most of the team gave up on our coach. However, I stayed faithful until the end.  What does the word faithful mean?  A. religious  B. filled with belief  C. loyal and supportive  D. able to trust  Each of these choices combines the meaning of faith and –ful in some way. You can see the combination of meanings in “filled with belief” and “able to trust.”  However, in this context, the correct answer is C.

16  We were on our way to the mall when the car died. My dad opened the hood, but the machinery was too confusing for him.  What does the word machinery mean?  A. a place for machines  B. a collection of machine parts  C. the state a machine is in  D. acting like a machine  The choices combine the meanings of the root word machine and the suffix –ery. Which new meaning makes sense in this context?  Under the hood of a car, you would find a collection of machine parts, so Choice B is correct.

17  Many, many words are formed by adding prefixes to roots. Even more words are formed by adding suffixes. Some words have both prefixes and suffixes. The more of these parts you know, the more meanings you can figure out.

18  anti- opposite; against  dis- not; absence of; opposite of; do the opposite of  mid- middle  mis- bad, badly; wrong, wrongly; failure  multi- many; much; more than two  non- not  post- after; later; behind  pre- earlier; before; in front of  re- again; backwards  sub- below; under; secondary; almost

19  -able capable or worthy of action  -er one that performs an action; one that is involved with  -ing action or process; result of the action of a process  -ish of; like; having the qualities of; somewhat  -less without; lacking  -like resembling; typical of  -ly like; having the characteristics of; in this manner  -ness state; condition; degree  -ous possessing; full of; characterized by  -tion action; process

20  At the end of a long week, I need to renew myself, so I take a hot bath, watch a silly movie, and get a good night’s sleep. In the morning, I feel much better.  What does the word renew mean?  A. move backward in time  B. make new again  C. discover again  D. young and backward  New should be a very familiar word. And re- is a very common prefix that often means “again.”  The correct answer is Choice B.

21  Go on to Selections for Practice on p34-35.

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